Regular Land Cruiser axle housings are similar to a Ford 9" and differential carriers are similar in construction to a Chevy 12bolt. The front and rear differential housings are both offset to the right in all models except some '58-62's which had centred rear differentials. They have an 9.5" ring gear. The axle shafts are 33mm in diameter (the same as a some Dana 60's) 1960-67 shafts had 10 coarse splines while 68 and later shafts have 30 fine splines. In 1968, the front axle CV joints changed from ball joints to Birfields.
There are two styles of rear axle used on Land Cruisers: semi-floating and full- floating.
All US-spec Land Cruisers before 1993 and most Canadian-spec Land Cruisers use semi-floating axle shafts. The one-piece axle shaft has a large flange on the outboard end that the wheel bolts. The are one axle bearing at each end of the axle tube that is lubricated by gear oil. The weight of the truck is supported by the axle shaft and then transmitted to the axle housing by the axle bearings and the differential carrier bearings. The axle shaft (and hence the wheels/tires) are retained in the axle housing by a C-clip on the inboard end of each axle. If the axle were to break, the axle/tire/wheel can leave the vehicle resulting in loss of control.
The front axles of all Land Cruisers are of the full floating design. The wheel bolts to a hub which is supported by a pair of tapered roller bearings that are in turn ride on a spindle. Early full floating rear axles were available in many markets outside North America, most notably Australia where C-clip equipped semi- floating axles were banned in 1974. It wasn't until 1993 that the full floating rear axle made an appearance in the United States under FZJ80s. Rear full Floating Axles have smaller shafts because the entire weight of the truck is bourne by the wheel bearings and the shaft itself is not loaded in flexure.
Light Duty axle housings are the same as those used in Toyota Pickup trucks. They feature a smaller housing constructed similarly to the heavy duty Land Cruiser. The ring gear is only 8" but the axle shafts are the same size and have the same number of splines as the regular Land Cruiser.
All solid axle Land Cruisers produced after February 1990 use a reverse-cut 8" ring gear in the front.
60/2 Series axles are 70mm wider than 40 series
70 Series axles are 20mm wider than 40 series